Ergonomics

Current Revisions made on 31 August 2013. Update on the NIOSH Revised Lifting Equation. Other recent changes to the workbooks for Liberty Mutual MMH and Static Work Analysis.

The analysis methods provided here have been adapted by the me or others for training and job analysis purposes. Generally they are in the open literature. Detailed and specialized evaluation tools are available from other sources.

The tool implementations are copyrighted and are intended only for the individual who downloads them. If you use them, please acknowledge the source. An e-mail on the use would be appreciated.

Typically, an Analysis Package is written in Excel® and has macros that must be enabled to fully function. The worksheets are protected to keep users in the data entry areas; some can be unprotected without a password. There will be a movement of the Excel workbooks to the most recent file formats (.xlsx and .xlsm). Because some systems block files with macros (i.e., .xlsm files), these files are zipped and must be uncompressed before using. Some of the workbooks are protected to conceal propriatary information; contact me to request an unprotected copy.

Manual methods are pencil and paper methods in an Adobe Acrobat® pdf file.

There is no warranty associated with these packages. They are no substitute for reading the original literature and availing yourself of professional commentary on the methods.

Kodak's Egonomic Design for People at Work
S. N. Chengalur, S. H. Rodgers, T. E. Bernard (ed)
John Wiley and Sons


The following group of downloads is a growing concern. Visit again sometime and feel free to make suggestions.

  • Basic Tools(Click to expand)
    Anthropometry

    Allows for the selection of body dimensions and computes the population mean, lower and upper limits and range limits based on a percent inclusion and specified gender mix.


    Analysis Package

    v2.1 (1/8/2006)
    Reach Envelope

    Link to Thomas J. Armstrong site at the University of Michigan for an Excel workbook to compute a reach envelope for a specified body size. See "Some Tools and Software". (There may be some problems using on a Mac.)
    Link to Site
    Percentiles

    Computes a percentile for value or a value for a percentile in a known distribution (one or two normal distributions).

    Analysis Package
    v1.0 (1/22/2005)
    Rating Perceived Effort (RPE) Scale

    Scale for perceived exertion, which can be used with Hand Activity Level and Strain Index to solicit perceived effort levels from the person performing the task.

    Note: This is not a Borg approved format.


    Scale

    v2.0 (12/29/2006)
    Some Links of Interest

    This is list of links is not nearly exhuastive and there are many good sites that are not included. You may suggest links to be included.

    Link to NIOSH Elements of Ergonomics Programs Scale

    Static Work Analysis

    Endurance times are based on a 10% reduction in the Rohmert data for endurance for > 40% MVC and unpublished data with Rohmert's data are used for <40% MVC.

    Work and recovery cycles are based on Potvin's data (JR Potvin, Predicting Maximum Acceptable Efforts for Repetitive Tasks: An Equation Based on Duty Cycle, Human Factors, 54(2):175-188, 2012) and an adapted (more restrictive) version of Potvin's recommendations.

    Sstatic work analysis is still evolving and there may be further changes in 2013 and 2014.



    Analysis Package
    v2.1 (12/7/2012)


    Manual Method

    v3.1 (12/7/2012)

    Estimation of Metabolic Rate

    Methods include ISO and Qualitative Descriptors plus equations for selected activities.

    The newest versions (v3 for Analysis Package and v2 for Manual Method) have an expanded set of equations including an adaptation of Garg's equations to estimate metabolic rate.



    Analysis Package

    v3.1 (7/28/2005)


    Manual Method

    v2.0 (8/6/2006)
    Dynamic Work Analysis

    Considers endurance as well as recovery allowances. Analysis package has method for multiple task analysis.


    Analysis Package

    v1.5 (6/10/2005)


    Manual Method

    v1.1 (8/5/2000)
  • Screening & Whole Body (Click to expand)

    Washington Department of Labor and Industries

    Based on the WISHA Ergonomics Rule of 2000

    The basic WISHA checklists for Caution and Hazard Zones were modified to reflect decisions about Caution and Hazard Zone in one checklist. The lifting and vibration assessments have been moved to separate forms. Needless to say, what is offered here is unofficial and unapproved meddling.

    This rule is no longer a statute, but the science behind it stands.

    See the WISHA website for more recent checklists and other information.



    Modified WMSD Checklist

    v2.0 (1/12/2010)


    Lifting
    (version 1/13/2002)


    Hand-Arm Vibration
    (version 1/13/2002)

    Link to WISHA Ergonomics

    Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA) and
    Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA)

    RULA and REBA consider features of the work that affect the whole body. While they are similar, the emphasis on some measures differ. These work sheets were provided with the understanding that the copyrights would be respected by those who download them. Note (24 Aug 2012): An error in RULA for effort time was corrected.

    A link to the version of RULA by Alan Hedge at Cornell University is also provided.



    RULA r1


    REBA

    Link to Cornell University

    Rodgers Muscle Fatigue Assessment

    The newest version (v2) has a section to screen for higher priority tasks.



    Manual Method

    v2.0 (12/29/2006)

    Whole Body Vibration

    The analysis package includes the ACGIH® TLV® and ISO criteria. It is not intended to represent an official interpretation.



    Analysis Package

    v4.0 (4/21/2009)
  • Back (Click to expand)

    ACGIH® TLV® for Back

    This is an interpretation of the TLV® and not a substitute for the TLV® and Documentation.



    Manual Method

    v1.1 (12/29/2006)

    Liberty Mutual Manual Materials Handling Tables

    Separate packages for Push/Pull, Carry, and Lift/Lower are offered. The newest version (v3) of the Push/Pull Analysis Package contains dual recommendations for initial force.

    The design goal tables are a reduced set of the Liberty Mutual MMH Tables. The emphasis is on design goals based on 75% acceptable for women. Separate table sets for US Traditional and mks units are provided. For Push/Pull forces, Loss Prevention at Liberty Mutual recommends the values associated with the shortest distance.

    Loss Prevention at Liberty Mutual has posted the recommendations that they use. The link is provided here.



    Push/Pull Analysis Package

    v3.1 (12/7/2012)


    Carry Analysis Package
    v2.1 (12/7/2012)


    Lift/Lower Analysis Package
    v2.1 (12/7/2012)


    Design Goal Tables -- US
    v2.2 (10/22/2002)


    Design Goal Tables -- Metric
    v2.2 (10/22/2002)

    Link to Liberty Mutual for MMH Tables

    Utah Back Compressive Force

    Biomechanical method developed by Donald S. Bloswick at the University of Utah. He has a newer version in the works and it will be added here when available and translated.



    Manual Method

    v1.1 (2/17/2002)


    Analysis Package

    v1.0 (2/1/2005)

    NIOSH -- Revised Lifting Equation (1991)

    Analysis package has method for multiple lift analysis that provides the Composite Lifting Index (CLI). An applications manual has been published by NIOSH and is available in pdf from their site. It is recommended that you have a copy for reference.

    Examples from the Applications Manual have been added to the Analysis Package. There are some minor discrepencies due to rounding errors.

    Starting with Version 4, the workbook has been re-written from scratch. It has provisons for metric units (kg and cm) and for storing task data. There is also a data collection form. Version 6 corrects a problem in Version 5 that provided some wrong multipliers if there were more than 5 tasks. Version 6 is also in the xlsm format.



    Analysis Package

    v 6.0 (8/30/2013)


    Manual Method

    v1.1 (8/9/2000)

    Link to Applications Manual
  • Upper Extremities (Click to expand)

    ACGIH® TLV® for Hand Activity Level

    This is an interpretation of the TLV® and not a substitute for the TLV® and Documentation.



    Analysis Package
    v1.2 (4/20/2000)


    Manual Method

    v1.5 (2/17/2002)

    Moore-Garg Strain Index

    A widely used exposure assessment method for the hands and wrists.



    Analysis Package
    v2.2 (1/11/2001)


    Manual Method
    v1.2 (1/11/2001)

    Hand Arm Vibration

    The analysis package includes the ACGIH® TLV® criteria as well as the ANSI limit and another published limit. It is not intended to represent an official interpretation.



    Analysis Package

    v5.0 (4/20/2009)

Ergonomist, one who protects workers.

It derives from a conjunction of ergon and gnome (i.e., ergo-gnome to ergonome to ergonomist); where ergon is Greek for work and gnome is a member of a fabled race of dwarfs who protect treasures.

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